On March 30, 2020, the California Court of Appeal overruled the city of Oakland’s demurrer regarding the validity of its waste management franchise fees on the grounds the plaintiffs sufficiently alleged that the fees were taxes. The city entered into waste management contracts with two companies. In turn, the companies agreed to pay the franchise

On February 15, 2019, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit held that the Roanoke, Virginia stormwater management charge was not subject to the discriminatory tax prohibition in the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (“4-R Act”) because the charge was a fee. In 2013, Roanoke enacted a stormwater management